Care home visitor restrictions in wake of rising Omicron cases

Care home residents are about to once again face restrictions in the number of visitors they can have.  Only three named visitors and one essential caregiver visitor will be allowed from Wednesday 15 December.  Given that there is no official ‘lockdown’ for the rest of the country at present, these new restrictions have been criticised by charities and care trade associations, since the rest of society is free to largely socialise without restrictions.

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Report critical of the UK’s handling of the coronavirus pandemic and effect on care homes

A joint report by the House of Commons All Party Health and Social Care and Science and Technology Committees says the UK’s failure to prevent the spread of COVID-19 pandemic was one of the worst ever public health failures. 

Focusing predominately on England, the report criticises delays in introducing a county wide lockdown.  The delays in dealing with the pandemic meant that certain vulnerable groups such as care home residents and people with learning disabilities were particularly susceptible to the virus, and the government did not prioritise the social care sector at the outset.  In particular the report criticises the rapid discharge of patients from hospitals into care homes.  Also lack of testing of social care staff meant that the virus could enter care homes from the community.   

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What is the UK’s legal position on compulsory vaccination?

It has been confirmed that the COVID-19 vaccination will become compulsory for staff that care for the elderly and vulnerable. In enforcing such a requirement, organisations are likely to face a number of issues and potential pitfalls, and it is important therefore to explore the key steps if you are considering introducing compulsory vaccination for staff or those deployed in the organisation.

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Mandatory vaccinations and medical exemptions of care home workers – government u-turn or a temporary reprieve?

It has recently been reported that care home workers are able to opt-out of the mandatory COVID-19 vaccination requirement by self-certifying that they are medically exempt.

Thursday 16 September 2021 was meant to be the deadline for all carers to have received their first COVID-19 vaccination. This mandatory vaccine requirement for all care home staff has been a source of constant debate since it was announced, with growing concerns that a significant number of care homes may be forced to close and thousands of staff from an already depleted workforce risked losing their jobs if they declined to have the vaccine. The government has been lobbied by both providers and unions that care home workers had been “singled out” and the very real possibility of the doomsday scenario of a mass exodus of care home staff in England, so it perhaps does not come as a great surprise that Whitehall has taken some evasive action (perhaps with an indication as to how many staff had refused the vaccine). However, how effective will this self-certification opt out process be and is it only a temporary fix to what has become a polarising political issue.

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ACAS guidance published – getting the COVID-19 vaccine for work

Our latest blog post commented on the new Government rules coming into effect from 11 November 2021 around vaccination for anyone who works inside a CQC registered care home in England. ACAS has published new advice for care home staff in England setting out how employers can approach the issue with their staff.

Following the suggestion that mandatory vaccination in a care home setting could lead to around 3-12% of care home staff being no longer able to work, the advice from ACAS focuses on helping employers to support staff and to provide strategies to avoid potential disciplinary action or dismissal.

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Could restricted access to dental care lead to claims?

A recent article in The Telegraph has highlighted the impact that the COVID-19 pandemic has had on the dental health of children.

NHS figures reveal that the number of children having dental check-ups fell by 50 per cent during the first year of the pandemic. In total, the number of under 15s who saw a dentist fell from 5.8 million to 2.9 million.

It is, however, the youngest age groups which have been impacted the most. Whilst there were 1.2 million dentists’ appointments for under 5s in 2019, only 468,000 appointments were arranged for 2020, a 60% fall. The article suggests that only 1 in 7 children under the age of 5 saw a dentist in 2020 compared to 1 in 3 during 2019.

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COVID-19 vaccinations – the right for healthcare workers to decide and the impact on social care

Most people who followed the press coverage in the UK following the public announcement of an ambitious national vaccination rollout would have foreseen the possibility for tension to exist between the public drive for everyone to be vaccinated against COVID-19 and the right of autonomy to refuse. The number of “anti-vax” conspiracy theories circulating online is simply staggering and some of the farcical claims really do beggar belief, notwithstanding the government’s attempts to allay these concerns. However, whilst many are content for individuals to make their own informed (or otherwise) decision, it becomes a far more emotive subject when the workers concerned are in the healthcare sector. Chances are, the majority of people reading this will have been affected directly or indirectly by COVID-19 and many more will have vulnerable or elderly relatives who rely upon the care and unwavering dedication of healthcare workers but it may not be a particularly comforting thought if the person providing that care to a vulnerable loved one were to refuse the vaccine.

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Social care reform, deaths in care and the pandemic

The Queen’s speech was delivered to both Houses of Parliament on 11 May 2021 with a focus upon protecting the health of the nation and economic growth. Criticism has been made however, of the lack of a concrete commitment to address the long-standing funding issues that have plagued the care sector with a brief mention only made within the speech that “proposals on social care reform will be brought forward”.  This appears to follow a lack of agreement between No 10 and the Treasury regarding a strategy to limit the amounts pensioners have to pay towards their own care. 

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Can employers force frontline carers to be vaccinated?

In the last few weeks we have seen a number of well known care providers introducing new policies, whereby new staff will be required to have the COVID vaccine prior to starting work. Some care providers have gone as far as requiring current care staff to be vaccinated, unless they are unable to on medical grounds. Some care providers have seemingly made it clear that if staff members refuse, purely out of choice, then this will make them ‘unavailable to work’ within frontline care settings. It seems that this decision has been made, amid concerns over the uptake of the vaccine amongst care workers across the UK.

No doubt, these decisions have been made to ensure the protection of those being cared for, as well as for staff members. However, with more care providers deciding to take this step, the question is now whether this raises employment concerns, for discrimination and unfair dismissal, amongst other things.

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Discharge of hospital patients who test positive for COVID-19 to care homes – will Designated Settings make an impact?

As was highlighted in this blog, the Vaccines Minister Nadhim Zahawi has announced a ‘targeted and time limited state backed indemnity’ for care homes which are registered as Designated Settings or intending to register as a Designated Setting, and which are unable to obtain commercial insurance. The question is, will this relatively short-term move have the impact that is needed right now to protect the NHS and care sector?

So what is a Designated Setting?  
It is essentially a care home which has applied and been assessed by the Care Quality Commission (CQC) as an appropriate setting to care for COVID-19 positive patients who are discharged from the NHS and who no longer require an acute hospital bed. The objective is of course to relieve pressure on the NHS as it copes with the winter crisis.

The aim is that there is at least one Designated Setting in each local authority ‘as soon as possible’.

How are the care homes assessed?
The care homes are assessed by the CQC using its Infection Prevention and Control framework (IPC). Assessments are made to ensure patients are being physically separated, that there is a dedicated workforce and appropriate emphasis on ventilation.

The CQC is using an ‘eight ticks‘ approach in order to give the public an overview as to factors such as the availability of adequate PPE, that staff are properly trained to deal with outbreaks and the appropriate processes needed, that shielding is being complied with and hygiene practice is promoted.

How many Designated Settings are there currently?
As at 12 January there were 135 approved Designated Settings providing a total of 1,624 approved beds. The coverage across the country is however currently variable – there are only 87 approved beds for instance in London, but 381 in Yorkshire and the Humber.

Testing of CQC inspectors
Up until now CQC inspectors were not tested for COVID which was a source of concern for many. It is now proposed that inspectors will be tested weekly with the testing being rolled out in the coming weeks. It is not clear however why there is to be a delay since care home staff are already being regularly tested.

What is the state indemnity scheme going to cover?
The indemnity will cover claims for clinical negligence and employers’ and public liability where the care home provider operating a Designated Setting has been unable to secure such cover in the commercial insurance market..

The clinical negligence aspect will be covered by the Clinical Negligence Scheme for Trusts (CNST) supervised by the DHSC and NHS Resolution.

However, as things stand this indemnity will be in place only until March 2021 and is to be reviewed in mid-February.

How helpful is this scheme going to be for the care home sector?
One of the concerns for care home managers seeking to participate will no doubt be the ability to provide a dedicated COVID- 19 workforce, particularly given the pressures on staffing already apparent.

If Designated Settings are to be contained within care homes also containing those who have not been exposed to COVID-19, reassurance around dedicated staff, PPE provision, social distancing and adequate ventilation may not be enough to convince service users that they are in fact completely safe.

 It remains to be seen how successful the scheme will be for care home operators who have difficulty in obtaining commercial insurance cover for COVID related claims. The impact on the NHS of course will depend on just how successful this scheme actually is in freeing up acute beds.

Given however that the indemnity scheme is limited in its time frame and scope the concern must be that it will simply be insufficient to make any real impact on the problem.


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Sarah Woodwark, Partner, BLM
sarah.woodwark@blmlaw.com